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Before the invention of modern electronic golden state overnight devices, which we call computers, had the English word computer many years a completely different meaning. It did not cover machines to be able to count, but real people of flesh and blood who have performed similar work carried out today as digital computers. The word "computer" before the middle golden state overnight of the 20th century marked golden state overnight the man whose job it was to count. Most went for the intelligent and educated young girls who unfortunately were not able or allowed to develop their research careers, and they were often employed as "computers" in laboratories, institutes and offices. golden state overnight
The first large computational feats, scientists have carried out soon after the Isaac Newton wrote the mathematical laws of motion that apply universally to all bodies in the heavens and on earth. The real computational challenge for astronomers were orbital motion of heavenly bodies, due to the interaction between the planets do not form an ideal curves. An important test for both Newtonian theory and the computational capabilities of mathematicians for instance, was re-calculate the moment of return of Halley's comet, which astronomers know that it is returned in the vicinity of the Sun approximately every seventy-five years, golden state overnight a cycle of return were not exactly the same every time. The comet is not exactly moved by an oval, but on his way next to the Sun gravity affect the planets.
French mathematician Alexis Claude Clairaut in the spring of 1758 with a colleague and fellow tackle calculating exactly when next year will Halley's comet seen again or will be closest to the Sun. In the complex process of computation, which lasted several months, helped him in Joseph Lalande, and Nicole-Reine Lepaute, which are now referred to as one of the first "computer" golden state overnight in the original sense of the word.
Small group of three skilled mathematics astronomy lovers who gather each morning at the Palais du Luxembourg in Paris until late afternoon with goose feathers on paper calculates the movement of the famous comet. Initially, in addition to the gravity of the Sun into account the impact of the two largest planets, Jupiter and Saturn, but after a few months later, the computation golden state overnight Clairaut afraid that they will be overtaken by a comet, so it is partly simplified accounts. For the effect of Saturn, which was farther away, it is estimated that for the last part of the track the comet during the movement of the Sun is not so important, so it is omitted from the account.
Fourteenth day of November 1758 results were presented to the Académie des sciences. Clairaut was then announced that the comet reached the point nearest the sun in the middle of April next year, according to the simplification of computation, it is estimated that the true value is somewhere in the range between golden state overnight 15 March and 15 May. The comet was then a German astronomer, golden state overnight first observed as early as Christmas Eve, the Sun and the closest to 13 March 1759, which was a little earlier than calculated trio. This has led to some doubts as to the reliability of the procedure itself numerical computing, but later it turned out that računarji not make any mistakes, but not taken into account in the calculation of two additional major planets, Uranus and Neptune, which at that time was not known.
Nicole-Reine Lepaute who participated in the team for calculating the route comet, its contemporaries said that was the only woman in France who actually know something about astronomy. Later, he became assistant editor of the Astronomical Almanac, which was issued by the Academy, and was at that time an important tool in navigation. In subsequent years, calculated in many useful tables of astronomical predictions of future events. golden state overnight In 1762 self-published a detailed forecast and sketches a solar eclipse, which can be observed over Europe 1 April 1764th Most of the "computer" was a female
As in the pioneer days numerically solving the equations of motion are then most often the heaviest work done računarke female. However, such computational feats were still only part of scientific research, but have often significant strategic importance to national security. During World War II in the U.S. so many young women with math education working on secret military projects computing, in which they carry out various calculations that are professionally known as numerical equations.